Teamwork And Organizational Performance Management Essay This chapter contains the review of the literature the effort done by other researchers that have a significant in the development of this research. A literature review can be in form of journals, articles, bulletins or theses. This publications can be in various sources and widely available via the Internet. 2.1 Dependent Variable 2.1.1 Teamwork and Organizational Performance According to Gomez and Rohrer (2011), a team is defined as a group of two or more people who communicate and positively influence each other and harmonize their work to accomplish a meaningful shared goal or reason for the success of organization. Team helps people to corporate, enhance individual skills, give feedback and reduce conflict occurred between individuals. As a team member, they have to learn how to work with other members and understand that one is different, unique and have more knowledge and power that can be channeled in a positive way (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Teamwork is an important feature for smooth functioning of an organization. Most organizational activities become difficult due to development in technology therefore teamwork is a heart of many organizations. Gomez and Rohrer (2011) said that, when a teams work hard and reach something great, they will have a sense of pride for their team and be motivated to do it again, because they know their role will be measured important and essential by top managers as well as all employees in the organization. Furthermore, working together as a team to create specific performance objectives helps transforming teams form groups of persons into committed groups (Khalid Al-Rawi, 2008). However, if teams vanish, employees will no longer have an essential and important role to play in their organization but instead work just to get a wages (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Another study mentions that team should be an element of an organization that builds upon itself. It fosters an appreciation of each individuals talents and the input they can make to their organization (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). This statement is also agreed by Judeh (2011) where team effectiveness is important because it is apply of the most important determinants of the companies achievement. Gomez and Rohrer (2011) reported that the responsibility of the teams will play in an organization will be viewed as priceless and vital of the organizational success. When teamwork is linked to the organization, members chat about team performance in relationship to corporate priorities, and quality measures. When teamwork has developed strong relation among members, peer support manifests itself in many ways Moreover, a number of organizational benefits can result from the victorious use of sourcing teamwork, and the highest perceived benefit is the skill to bring greater knowledge and skills together at one time (Khalid Al-Rawi, 2008). Organizations that mix employees to grow up within a system of teamwork, employees rapidly learn how to work with other employees in a positive way. The result is that they will soon begin to value their own potential as persons and as a member of a team (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Khalid Al-Rawi (2008) state that the main goals of teamwork are to develop an organization whose teamwork member does not reveal commitment to team process feces significant hurdles if it attempts the broad use of cross-functional productivity and motivation. H1: Teamwork has significant positive effect on organizational performance. 2.2 Independent Variables 2.2.1 Leadership towards Organizational Performance According to Liu, Wang and Cao (2011), leadership is best characterized as a social influence process. Each team in an organization must have a mentor who is not compulsory a supervisor but someone who is expert in teamwork to guide the team (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). In the face of complicated and complex projects leaders, managers, and team leaders have to deal with a wide range of people, including sponsors, team members, consumers, suppliers and internal department heads, all of who, often have conflicting goals and competing priorities (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Khalid Al-Rawi (2008) argues that an effective supervisor must keep up a teams focus on its task while establishing positive relations with team members. Meanwhile, previous research indicates that leader behaviors main result on team performance is very weak when considering the external surroundings of the team (Liu, Wang Chao, 2011). Without a respect from team members, a leader can lose the ability to effectively lead and efficiently deal with their team. When there is respectful from leader and team members, it can make an easier for them to do what is asked and able to communicate (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Most importantly, it is the responsibility of the senior employees to teach new comers to have a clean heart for the organization succeed and become profitable. Furthermore, listening is one skill that each leader must have in order to help them in understanding that it is an active action and requires work to master (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). In other site of view, the team leader is directly in charge for inspiring this commitment from team members so as to enhance the team efforts in achieving the common goals (Judeh, 2011). According to Judeh (2011), he agrees that successful leader who is able to promote care and trust value find themselves with high standards that would affect organizations competitiveness. This is important because as a team leader you are going to work with employees of all ages, races, backgrounds and education levels (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Furthermore, a team leader should guide their team members to increase their efforts and focus their commitment towards the goals of the team (Judeh, 2011). While Liu, Wang and Cao (2011) had mentioned that the leader should motivate individual team members and also lead their team effectively. H2: Leadership has significant positive effect on organizational performance. 2.2.2 Team Trust towards Organizational Performance. Another researcher had defined trust as the point to which a person has confidence of another person and is set to act based on the words, deeds and decision of other persons or and group in other view, trust in teammates is fundamentals for success (Mach, Dolan Tzafrir, 2010). They found that trust in the supervisor is more closely related to work variables, while trust in top management is much more closely related to organizational variables due to the functioning versus more strategic role coaches and management play. In previous studies said that trust is the important trait to have in a team and when leader have a trust towards their team mates, the need for power becomes obsolete. According to the Mach, Dolan and Tzafrir (2010), trust is highly useful to the functioning of an organization. Organizational citizenship behavior, employee performance, open communication to the team objectives, team performance and increased coordination become a link between trust and a variety of those work behavior. Moreover, the researcher feels that trust enhances organizational relationship by increasing the capability of group members to work together. Recent study found that, groups with higher levels of trust did not necessarily perform better than groups with lower levels of trust, thus it showed that trust influenced group process and performance indirectly. Moreover, trust can be said as an integral part of teamwork and this require high level of interdependence between members and generates synergy in the form of cooperation and interaction amongst team members (Mach, Dolan Tzafrir, 2010). H3: Team trust has positive effect on organizational performance. 2.2.3 Communication Styles According to Gomez and Rohrer (2011), teams are the central to the socialization of employees, particularly the new comers. Teams alter individual self-interest into an important resource that can be used to build and maintain the vibrant organization. Furthermore, in a team all employees are socialized to become hard workers in their organization. However, when the new staff is timid and not tries to socialize or communicate with their teammates or other staff, they will become socially isolated individuals and will not feel the sense of connectedness with their organization (Gomez Rohrer, 2011). Research has also reported that communication among team members, sharing of the workload, and high levels of cooperation will improve team effectiveness (Williams Castro, 2010). According to Williams and Castro (2010), communication among team member builds a positive team climate since it improves problem solving skills and interpersonal relations on the team. Ultimately, the more interdependent team members are with each other the more they should be able to realize outcomes related to teamwork as they build team efficacy (Williams Castro, 2010). Communication is also a construct that has been linked with numerous outcomes of groups and teams, such as with knowledge sharing, learning, reductions in time requirements and transaction costs and reduced redundancy (Clopton, 2011). According to Clopton (2011), communication or social capital can reduce the probability of opportunities and the cost of monitoring while encouraging supportive behavior and facilitating the development of new forms of association and innovation. In addition, social exchange relationships evolve and generate beneficial consequences when employers take care of employees. In this sense, the social exchange relationship is a mediator or intervening variable that produces effective work behavior and positive employee attitudes (Mach, Dolan Tzafrir, 2010). H4: Communication style has significant positive effect on organizational performance 2.3 Conceptual Framework The theoretical or conceptual framework is the foundation of hypothetical deductive research as it is the basis of the hypotheses that you will develop. It is a logically developed, described and elaborated network of associations among the variables deemed relevant to the problem situation and identified through such processes as interviews, observations and literature review (Sekaran, 2010). A theoretical framework represents your belief on how certain phenomena (or variables or concepts) are related to each other (a model) and an explanation of why you believe that these variables are associated with each other (a theory) (Sekaran, 2010). Theoretical framework elaborates the relationship among all variables independent and dependent variables. It explains the theory underlying these relations and describes the nature and direction of the relationship. From the theoretical framework, testable hypothesis can be developed to examine whether the theory formulated is valid or not. Based on literature review the conceptual framework is as follow: (I.Vs) (D.V) Leadership (Gomez Rohrer, 2011) Organizational Performance Team Trust (Mach, Dolan Tzafrir, 2010) Communication Style (Williams Castro, 2010) Figure 2.3 Conceptual Framework 2.4 Hypothesis Hypothesis is logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of testable statement. Relationship conjectured on the basis of the network of associations established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study (Sekaran, 2010). A hypothesis can also be referring as the thing that the researcher educate guess to solve the research problems in the organization. The hypothesis for this study as below: H1: There is a significant relationship between teamwork and organizational performance. H2: There is significant relationship between leadership and organizational performance. H3: There is significant relationship between team trust and organizational performance. H4: There is significant relationship between communication style and organizational performance.
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